The unique Composite Steel Reinforced (CSR) structure of AquaSpira pipes provides a range of significant benefits over conventional concrete or plastic pipes
- Composite Steel Reinforced Pipe Structure - The composite pipe wall structure gives AquaSpira CSR pipes significantly improved, stable and predictable long-term structural performance.
- Unique Pipe-Surround Structure – Whilst AquaSpira CSR Pipes are inherently stiffer than plastic pipes, once installed, the compacted backfill material between the steel reinforced ribs provides significant additional stiffness, creating a uniquely strong pipe-surround structure.
- High Performance in Challenging Applications – Practical evidence and detailed analysis shows that the unique pipe-surround structure becomes increasingly effective in more severe loading conditions, making AquaSpira pipes particularly suitable for deep or shallow pipelines.
- Superior Performance in Highway Locations – Almost all of the calculated deflection takes place during installation, prior to final surfacing, meaning that the average post-surfacing deflection is less than 1mm and is therefore irrelevant. For further information please contact email@example.com
We recommend that structural calculations are undertaken for all projects. Our technical department offers this service free of charge so to request assistance please contact us. A sample calculation is available to download here. If you wish to undertake your own calculations our short and long-term ring stiffness vales are available here.
For Typical Construction Details and Data Sheets for each pipe diameter please go to Typical Construction Details
For details on connecting pipes into structures (manholes) please refer to Connecting Pipes into Concrete Structures
For details on installing pipes at shallow depths please see our Typical Detail
Forming a radius: The pipe barrel cannot be curved, therefore the radius must be formed by pulling individual pipe joints. The maximum angle that can be formed at each joint varies according to the diameter of the pipe – for details please see the AquaSpira Pipe Radius Data Sheet. If a particularly tight radius is required, this can be achieved by the use of shorter pipe lengths (minimum 0.5m).
With AquaSpira pipes it is now Possible and Practical to install larger diameter pipes in the estate roads of a new housing development, or an existing highway – often eliminating, or certainly reducing the need for off-line storage tanks and the valuable land required to accommodate them. See comparison tables in the Housing Sector
The hydraulic characteristics of smooth bore, high density polyethylene are extremely good, providing maximum efficiency and durability:
The roughness coefficient of HDPE for calculations using the Colebrook-White formula is 0.03 ks. However, ‘Sewers for Adoption’ and certain other standards or codes of practice state that a general roughness figure of 0.6 ks should be applied, irrespective of pipe material. Where this figure is applied, AquaSpira CSR pipe will in all cases function much more efficiently than the calculated design flows.
If the Mannings equation is used, a roughness coefficient of 0.01 ks should be applied.
Chemical and Abrasion Resistance
The HDPE bore of IntegraPipe offers excellent resistance to all substances that would routinely be discharged into drainage systems, including water with high saline content, fuels, acids and most chemicals. Additionally, unlike concrete based products, polyethylene is completely resistant to sulphates and can therefore provide significantly better long-term performance.
Further information related to chemical resistance and a performance against a comprehensive list of specific chemicals is available is available to download here.
Proven abrasion resistance out performs all other pipe materials.
In accordance with BS EN1997-1, AquaSpira pipes require the following depth of compacted fill over the top to make sure flotation does not occur. Figures are based upon groundwater level at surface level:
Pipe Diameter (mm)
Excavation, Bedding & Surround
- Significantly smaller OD of pipes reduces required footprint, excavation and cart-away by an average 25% compared to concrete pipe. This is particularly beneficial where pipes are to be installed in established/active roads.
- Reduced backfill material due to smaller trenches and the straight profile of the pipe and joint.
- Standard 3m and 2.6m lengths allow pipes to be installed in standard, short trench support boxes.
- Short lengths and minimal OD enables pipes to be manoeuvred around or beneath other existing services.
- Standard Plant – AquaSpira Pipes weigh 5% the weight of an equivalent size concrete pipe - see Weight Comparison Table on the Health & Safety Benefits page.
Typical trench, bedding and backfill details form each diameter of pipe can be downloaded from the Typical Construction Details page.
Further details on Bedding, Backfill and protection of pipes are here
AquaSpira Pipes, Pipeline Access and Tank Systems provide unparalleled levels of Ease, Safety and Efficiency of installation.
- Light Weight - All diameters can be handled and installed with standard small site machinery.
- Robust - Unique Steel Reinforced PE Pipe Structure.
- Push-Fit Joints - Innovative spigot & socket sealed joints.
- Range of Lengths - 2.6m and 3m lengths for use in standard trench boxes. Longer lengths available for use in shallow open trench installations.
- Easy to Manoeuvre – the combined benefits of light weight, short lengths and minimal OD make AquaSpira the most versatile pipes for use in locations where existing utilities are present.
- Rocker Pipes not ordinarily required. See here for details on connecting to structures.
- Improved Health & Safety - AquaSpira pipes weigh just 5% the weight of concrete pipes.
- 60% Fewer Loads and Minimal Offloading Time – particularly beneficial for sites with difficult access or other constraints.
- Simple & Safe site handling – with minimal storage space required.
- Lateral Connections - simple and cost effective method of forming lateral connections.
An innovative range of Access Units developed to simplify the method of incorporating access into large diameter pipelines, and radically accelerate the process of installation. The units are designed to replace conventional concrete manholes, which are very large, cumbersome and extremely time consuming to build.
Significant Design & Construction Benefits include:
- Fully integrated push-fit, sealed joints.
- Rapid Installation – routinely installed within an hour compared to several days for a conventional large manhole.
- Much smaller footprint in roads and much less excavation too.
- Robust Components manufactured from marine grade 316L stainless steel.
- Man-Entry and Non-Man-Entry Access Turrets.
For typical construction details please go to the Typical Construction Details page.
Our unique range of large diameter fittings enables engineers and contractors to design and build complete tank systems for Storm Water and Foul Water Attenuation or Storage.
AquaSpira tank components provide the following key benefits:
- Fully integrated push-fit, sealed joint system on all pipes and components.
- Rapid Installation.
- Robust Components manufactured from marine grade 316L stainless steel.
- Man-Entry and Non-Man-Entry Access Turrets.
- No separate couplings, seals or on-site welding required.
For typical Construction Details please go to the Typical Construction Details page.
Typical Construction Details
|Construction Drawings and Data Sheets|
Pipe Diameter Range (mm)
Typical Construction Details
Single Side Tank Manifold c/w Access Turret
900 - 2250
|Double Side Tank Manifold c/w Access Turret||900 - 2250|
|Access Pipe - intermediate access point||900 - 2250|
|Access End Pipe||900 - 2250|
|Access End Pipe with level soffit inlet||900 - 2250|
|End Cap||900 - 2250|
|For full range of Access Pipes, Access End Pipes and Access Turrets please see Pipeline Access Systems|
Quality, Accreditation and Standards
All AquaSpira products are manufactured to the highest standard, using high quality materials from quality assured suppliers. Our Quality Systems are to the highest standards, based upon and accredited by BSI.
BSI ISO 9001 – Quality Management Systems – View Certificate
WRc Approved – Industry leading accreditation.
We are currently broadening the scope of our accreditation to incorporate some innovative new products.
Achilles UVDB – Accredited Supplier.
Water Company Approval
AquaSpira pipes have been approved for use in all Water Company regions and in many regions they are established as the preferred choice for large diameter pipe applications.
AquaSpira pipes comply with Sewers for Adoption and CESWI 7 and are approved for Adoption under Section 104 Agreements. However, all of the UK Water Companies have variable procedures, and most tend to assess schemes on a project by project basis. Some also apply charges for amendments after applications have been submitted so we would recommend that AquaSpira pipes are specified on the original drawings.
Acknowledgements from some of our Water Company clients:
– Framework Supplier for AMP5 and AMP6. Preferred supplier for large diameter pipes and Foul & Stormwater attenuation tanks.
– Innovative Supplier: Large diameter pipes. See STW Innovation Bulletin
– Innovative Supplier: Large diameter pipes. See typical case study
– Innovative Supplier: Large diameter pipes. See Spotlight on Innovation
– See typical case study
AquaSpira pipes comply with all relevant British and European Standards, most of which form the basis of our WRc Approval. The primary, relevant standards are:
- BS EN ISO 9969 – Determination of Ring Stiffness.
- BS EN ISO 9967 – Determination of Creep Ratio.
- BS EN 1979 – Determination of the Tensile Strength of a Seam.
- BS EN 744 – Resistance to External Blows by the Round Clock method.
- BS EN 1446 – Determination of Ring Flexibility.
- BS EN 1277 – Tightness of Elastomeric Ring Seal Joints.
- WIS-4-35-01 – all appropriate elements.
Water Jetting – In accordance with WIS-4-35-01 Section 6.10 high pressure water jetting is only applicable to pipes ≤ 300mmØ and is therefore not relevant to any AquaSpira pipes. However, for peace of mind, AquaSpira pipes have been formally tested and certified by WRc to comply with the above standard.
Our design team specialize in assessing drainage and storage systems to ensure that the proposal offered provides maximum cost, installation and programme efficiency. Our unique, wide range of pipe diameters, together with our innovative Pipeline Access system routinely provide opportunities to significantly reduce cost and time.
We can provide drawings to show optimized proposals, through to detailed layout and construction drawings in AutoCad format. Standard construction drawings and data sheets for each diameter are available to download here
External Sales Engineers
Our team of external sales engineers are highly experienced and dedicated to providing the best possible solutions to our customers. Our focus upon large diameter pipes and attenuation tanks is a key element of our well earned reputation for being the best in the business! To arrange a visit, please contact us
For your convenience we have listed answers to technical questions that often arise in the 'Your Questions Answered' page in our Technical section. However, if you require further assistance or clarification on any technical matters, please don’t hesitate to contact us
Material Specification and Data
Pipes are manufactured to the appropriate sections of EN 13476 in accordance with AquaSpira WRc Certification PT/317/0211. Pipe joints are Spigot & Socket with captive rubber ring seals and comply with BS EN 1277.
Pipes: Manufactured from a Composite Steel Reinforced (CSR) material. The polyethylene grade is PE63 HDPE and the steel grade is DC01, all manufactured to comply with appropriate standards.
Seals: EPDM 40+/-5 SHORE – Double Fin Sliding Seal 30mm Wide x 12mm High permanently fitted during production into a recess on the pipe spigot. Manufactured to BS EN681-1
Creep Bands: Steel Band: 304 stainless steel. Dims: 50mm Wide x 0.5mm Thick, Bolt: A2 stainless steel, M10x1.5, 90mm long with 8mm Allan Key, Cylindrical Trunnion: 303 stainless steel.
Pipeline Access and Tank Units: Marine grade 304 stainless steel.
The steel contains an average of 50% recycled material. Based upon this figure, the average large diameter pipe or tank contains 25% recycled material, making them uniquely suitable for projects where BREEAM ratings are applicable, or where environmental considerations are important.
The composite pipe material is 100% recyclable.
The steel is fully encapsulated within the HDPE pipe profile. HDPE has excellent resistance to most chemicals and contaminants and does not suffer from corrosion. A detailed chemical resistance data sheet is available here.
AquaSpira Pipes are WRc Approved, which is the most appropriate independent third party accreditation for pipes of this type.
When installed in accordance with company standard construction details, AquaSpira pipes should achieve a minimum design life of 120 years. For further details please contact firstname.lastname@example.org
A version of our Material Specification and Data Sheet in pdf format is available here
Your Questions Answered
Hopefully you will find the answers here to any questions you have about designing and installing AquaSpira pipes, but if you can't find the information that you require, please contact us.
What is the design life?
120+ Years. For further details please refer to AquaSpira Pipe Design Life data sheet.
What is the Hydraulic Roughness Value (Ks) for AquaSpira pipe?
Ks = 0.03mm
Are Rocker/Short Pipes required?
Rocker/Short Pipes are not required, however some clients may specify short pipes for connecting into particular rigid structures.
What is the recommended bedding and backfill detail and material?
Please see Typical Construction Details.
How do you build AquaSpira pipes into concrete manholes?
What is the maximum depth that an AquaSpira pipe can be laid?
The maximum depth that a pipe can be laid is determined by a combination of the following:
Native Ground Conditions
Surcharge (vehicle) loading
For further information please contact our technical department. AquaSpira can provide detailed structural calculations upon request.
What is the minimum cover depth over an AquaSpira pipe?
The established principles for other pipe types apply. Please refer to Typical Construction Details.
900mm for general trafficked areas (roads, car parks etc.)
1200mm for new adoptable roads (typically new housing developments)
Where the above cannot be achieved a concrete protection slab may be required. Please refer to Installing Pipes at Shallow Depths
How do you provide protection to pipes with less than 900mm cover?
Please refer to Installing Pipes at Shallow Depths
What cover is required to prevent flotation?
Please refer to Pipe Flotation Prevention Table in the Hydraulic section.
What is your recommendation for sites with poor ground conditions?
Always undertake Structural Calculations to ensure compliance with maximum deflection tolerance with the appropriate approval authority. For further information please contact our technical department. AquaSpira can provide detailed structural calculations upon request.
Typical methods for improving structural performance in poor ground conditions are:
Increase trench width and width of stone surround
Line the trench bottom and sides with a suitable geotextile material.
For further information – see BS 9295 Section A.13.1
Are puddle flanges required when building pipes into concrete structures?
No, the external steel reinforced ribs provide an excellent structure for concrete to key into. The ribs also provide a water bar.
How do you connect gully pipes or other lateral connections into AquaSpira pipes?
AquaSpira Lateral Connectors enable quick and simple connections. Please refer to Lateral Connector Data Sheet
Can pipes be installed in a concrete surround?
In accordance with Section A.14.3 of BS 9295 concrete surround is not recommended. If the results of a structural calculation show that additional measures are required, a concrete protection slab above the pipe is the most appropriate specification. Please refer to Installing Pipes at Shallow Depths
Can pipes be surrounded with cement grout?
Yes, including those with relatively high curing temperatures, because the steel reinforcement ensures that the circular structure of the pipe is retained regardless of temperature.
Do AquaSpira produce Tank Manifolds, Bends and other fittings?
Yes, a comprehensive range of very robust units are available – please refer to Tank Systems and Pipeline Access Systems >(links)
How do you form a radius with AquaSpira pipes?
The pipe barrel cannot be curved, therefore the radius must be formed by pulling individual pipe joints. The maximum angle that can be formed at each joint varies according to the diameter of the pipe – for details please see the AquaSpira Pipe Radius Data Sheet. If a particularly tight radius is required, this can be achieved by the use of shorter pipe lengths (minimum 0.5m).
What is the maximum angle that a pipe joint can be formed?
The maximum angle that can be formed at each joint varies according to the diameter of the pipe – for details please see the AquaSpira Pipe Radius Data Sheet.
Are AquaSpira pipes approved for Section 104 adoption agreements?
Yes. However, all of the UK Water Companies have slightly different procedures, and most tend to assess schemes on a project by project basis. Some also apply charges for amendments after applications have been submitted so we would recommend that AquaSpira pipes are specified on the original drawings.
Do AquaSpira pipes comply with Sewers for Adoption 7 and CESWI?
What are the Short-Term and Long-Term Stiffness values for AquaSpira pipes?
Please refer to the AquaSpira Short and Long-Term Stiffness Values data sheet.
What is the maximum pressure that the standard joint can withstand?
Are AquaSpira pipes protected from ultraviolet?
Yes, pipes are protected from UV, even for applications where elements of the pipe may be permanently exposed to daylight.
Can AquaSpira pipes be connected to existing concrete pipes?
Yes, the method for doing this is to butt the spigot end of the AquaSpira pipe up to the end of the concrete pipe and make the joint with a proprietary flexible coupling. Bushes may be required to increase the OD of the AquaSpira spigot to enable the flexible coupling to be fitted.